Pernicious Anemia

Conveniently located to serve Denver Metro, Fort Collins, and Colorado Springs.

Functional Medicine’s Approach to Pernicious Anemia


Welcome to Spire Health Pathways, where our functional medicine practice is dedicated to empowering individuals living with pernicious anemia through comprehensive knowledge and personalized care. This webpage provides an extensive and detailed look at pernicious anemia, its signs and symptoms, the impact on people’s lives, and what to expect from our practice when seeking care. Our aim is to help you make well-informed decisions about your health and the management of this condition.

Understanding Pernicious Anemia

What is Pernicious Anemia?

Pernicious anemia is a type of autoimmune disorder that affects the body’s ability to absorb vitamin B12, leading to a decrease in the number of healthy red blood cells. It occurs when the immune system attacks the cells in the stomach that produce intrinsic factor, a protein necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12. As a result, the body cannot produce enough red blood cells to carry oxygen effectively, leading to symptoms of anemia.

Causes and Risk Factors

Pernicious anemia is primarily caused by an autoimmune response that targets the stomach’s parietal cells, which produce intrinsic factor. The exact cause of this autoimmune reaction is unknown, but certain factors may increase the risk of developing pernicious anemia:

  • Age: Pernicious anemia is more common in older adults.
  • Family history: A family history of autoimmune disorders may increase the risk of pernicious anemia.
  • Race: People of Northern European or African descent are more likely to develop pernicious anemia.
  • Other autoimmune conditions: Individuals with other autoimmune disorders, such as type 1 diabetes or thyroid disorders, may have a higher risk of developing pernicious anemia.

Signs and Symptoms of Pernicious Anemia

Common Symptoms

Pernicious anemia can cause a wide range of symptoms, some of which include:

  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Rapid or irregular heartbeat
  • Pale or yellowish skin
  • Digestive problems, such as constipation, diarrhea, or loss of appetite

Neurological Symptoms

Vitamin B12 deficiency in pernicious anemia can also lead to neurological symptoms, such as:

  • Numbness and tingling in the hands and feet
  • Difficulty maintaining balance
  • Memory problems and difficulty concentrating
  • Depression and mood changes

Diagnosing Pernicious Anemia

Diagnosing pernicious anemia typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests. Some common tests include:

Blood Tests

Blood tests can help identify low levels of vitamin B12, elevated levels of homocysteine or methylmalonic acid (markers of vitamin B12 deficiency), and changes in red blood cell appearance.

Intrinsic Factor Antibodies Test

A blood test for antibodies against intrinsic factor can help confirm a diagnosis of pernicious anemia, as the presence of these antibodies suggests an autoimmune response targeting the stomach cells that produce intrinsic factor.

Parietal Cell Antibodies Test

A blood test for antibodies against parietal cells can also support the diagnosis of pernicious anemia. However, these antibodies are not specific to pernicious anemia and can be present in other autoimmune conditions as well.

Impact of Pernicious Anemia on People’s Lives

Pernicious anemia can significantly impact individuals’ lives, affecting their physical, emotional, and social well-being. Some of the common impacts include:
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Physical Health

The fatigue and weakness associated with pernicious anemia can hinder everyday activities and limit one’s ability to work, exercise, or engage in recreational activities. Additionally, untreated pernicious anemia can lead to serious complications, such as nerve damage, heart problems, and even permanent neurological damage.

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Emotional Health

Living with the uncertainty of an autoimmune condition and coping with symptoms like fatigue, mood changes, and memory problems can take a toll on an individual’s emotional well-being. It is not uncommon for people with pernicious anemia to experience anxiety, depression, or feelings of isolation.

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Social Life

The physical and emotional challenges of pernicious anemia may affect an individual’s social life, as they may find it difficult to participate in social events or maintain relationships due to ongoing fatigue or emotional challenges.

Spire Health Pathways’ Functional Medicine Approach

At Spire Health Pathways, we believe in a personalized and holistic approach to managing pernicious anemia. Our functional medicine practitioners aim to address the root causes of the condition while providing comprehensive, integrative care.

Comprehensive Assessment

Our approach begins with a thorough evaluation of your medical history, lifestyle factors, and environmental influences to identify potential triggers and imbalances that may contribute to pernicious anemia.

Personalized Treatment Plans

Based on our comprehensive assessment, we develop a personalized treatment plan tailored to your unique needs and circumstances. This may include:

  • Vitamin B12 supplementation, through injections or high-dose oral supplements, to restore normal levels and alleviate symptoms
  • Dietary counseling and personalized meal planning to support a nutrient-rich, anti-inflammatory diet
  • Targeted supplementation to address other nutritional deficiencies or imbalances
  • Lifestyle modification recommendations, such as stress reduction techniques, sleep optimization, and personalized exercise plans
  • Integrative therapies, such as acupuncture, massage therapy, or hydrotherapy, to support overall health and well-being

Collaborative Care

We work closely with your primary healthcare team and any relevant specialists to ensure a coordinated and holistic approach to your care. Regular follow-ups and monitoring help us track your progress and make any necessary adjustments to your treatment plan.


At Spire Health Pathways, our goal is to provide comprehensive, personalized, and integrative care for individuals living with pernicious anemia. We believe that by addressing the root causes of the condition and supporting overall health and well-being, we can help you achieve optimal health and improve your quality of life. If you or a loved one is living with pernicious anemia and would like to explore our functional medicine approach, we invite you to contact us and schedule a consultation. Let us partner with you on your journey to better health and wellness.

Learn More About Our Services

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Unexplained Symptoms

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Lifestyle & Environmental

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Autoimmune & Allergic

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Neurologic & Mental Health

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Spire Health Pathways

“The doctor of the future will give no medicine, but will instruct his patients in care of the human frame, in diet, and in the cause and prevention of disease.” – Thomas Edison